Study by Sergio Arroyo et al, investigates vasointestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SST) interneurons in the mouse secondary motor cortex during the acquisition of a cue-based reach-to-grasp task. VIP interneurons exhibit preparatory activity with sensory responses and ramping activation during motor learning, while SST interneurons show synchronous activation during movement. The dynamics of VIP neurons separate preparation and movement activities. Changes in VIP recruitment reflect the emergence of a preparatory network. The study highlights how VIP interneurons support sensorimotor learning and contribute to the organization of cortical activity. Calcium imaging using “nVue” and “nVoke” techniques is employed to track interneuron activity during task learning, offering valuable insights into the neural mechanisms underlying motor skill acquisition.