Microendoscopic calcium imaging with one-photon miniature microscopes enables unprecedented readout of neural circuit dynamics during active behavior in rodents. In this study, we describe successful application of this technology in the rhesus macaque, demonstrating plug-and-play, head-mounted recordings of cellular-resolution calcium dynamics from large populations of neurons simultaneously in bilateral dorsal premotor cortices during performance of a naturalistic motor reach task. Imaging is stable over several months, allowing us to longitudinally track individual neurons and monitor their relationship to motor behavior over time. We observe neuronal calcium dynamics selective for reach direction, which we could use to decode the animal’s trial-by-trial motor behavior. This work establishes head-mounted microendoscopic calcium imaging in macaques as a powerful approach for studying the neural circuit mechanisms underlying complex and clinically relevant behaviors, and it promises to greatly advance our understanding of human brain function, as well as its dysfunction in neurological disease.